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## Chapter Eighteen

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**Chapter Eighteen**Chapter 18**Figure 18.1 Relationship to the Previous Chapters & The**Marketing Research Process Figure 18.1 Relationship of Correlation and Regression to the Previous Chapters and the Marketing Research Process Focus of This Chapter Relationship to Previous Chapters Relationship to Marketing Research Process • Correlation • Regression • Analytical Framework and Models (Chapter 2) • Data Analysis Strategy (Chapter 15) • General Procedure of Hypothesis Testing (Chapter 16) • Hypothesis Testing Related to Differences (Chapter 17) Problem Definition Approach to Problem Research Design Field Work Data Preparation and Analysis Report-Preparation and Presentation**Figure 18.2 Correlation and Regression: An Overview**Opening Vignette Product Moment Correlation Figs 18.3-18.4 Tables 18.1-18.2 Regression Analysis What Would You Do? Be a DM! Be an MR! Experiential Learning Bivariate Regression Figs 18.5-18.7 Table 18.3 Multiple Regression Table 18.4 Application to Contemporary Issues International Technology Ethics**Product Moment Correlation**• The product moment correlation,r, summarizes the strength of association between two metric (interval or ratio scaled) variables, say X and Y. • It is an index used to determine whether a linear or straight-line relationship exists between X and Y. • As it was originally proposed by Karl Pearson, it is also known as the Pearson correlation coefficient. It is also referred to as simple correlation, bivariate correlation, or merely the correlation coefficient.**Product Moment Correlation**• r varies between -1.0 and +1.0. • The correlation coefficient between two variables will be the same regardless of their underlying units of measurement.**Plot of Attitude with Duration**9 Attitude 6 3 2.25 4.5 9 6.75 11.25 13.5 15.75 18 Duration of Car Ownership Figure 18.3**Product Moment Correlation**= (10 + 12 + 12 + 4 + 12 + 6 + 8 + 2 + 18 + 9 + 17 + 2)/12 = 9.333 = (6 + 9 + 8 + 3 + 10 + 4 + 5 + 2 + 11 + 9 + 10 + 2)/12 = 6.583 = (10 -9.33)(6-6.58) + (12-9.33)(9-6.58) + (12-9.33)(8-6.58) + (4-9.33)(3-6.58) + (12-9.33)(10-6.58) + (6-9.33)(4-6.58) + (8-9.33)(5-6.58) + (2-9.33) (2-6.58) + (18-9.33)(11-6.58) + (9-9.33)(9-6.58) + (17-9.33)(10-6.58) + (2-9.33)(2-6.58) = -0.3886 + 6.4614 + 3.7914 + 19.0814 + 9.1314 + 8.5914 + 2.1014 + 33.5714 + 38.3214 - 0.7986 + 26.2314 + 33.5714 = 179.6668**= (10-9.33)2 + (12-9.33)2 + (12-9.33)2 + (4-9.33)2**+ (12-9.33)2 + (6-9.33)2 + (8-9.33)2 + (2-9.33)2 + (18-9.33)2 + (9-9.33)2 + (17-9.33)2 + (2-9.33)2 = 0.4489 + 7.1289 + 7.1289 + 28.4089 + 7.1289+ 11.0889 + 1.7689 + 53.7289 + 75.1689 + 0.1089 + 58.8289 + 53.7289 = 304.6668 = (6-6.58)2 + (9-6.58)2 + (8-6.58)2 + (3-6.58)2 + (10-6.58)2+ (4-6.58)2 + (5-6.58)2 + (2-6.58)2 + (11-6.58)2 + (9-6.58)2 + (10-6.58)2 + (2-6.58)2 = 0.3364 + 5.8564 + 2.0164 + 12.8164 + 11.6964 + 6.6564 + 2.4964 + 20.9764 + 19.5364 + 5.8564 + 11.6964 + 20.9764 = 120.9168 Thus, = 0.9361**Decomposition of the Total Variation**• When it is computed for a population rather than a sample, the product moment correlation is denoted by , the Greek letter rho. The coefficient r is an estimator of . • The statistical significance of the relationship between two variables measured by using r can be conveniently tested. The hypotheses are:**The test statistic is:**which has a t distribution with n - 2 degrees of freedom. For the correlation coefficient calculated based on the data given in Table 18.1, = 8.414 and the degrees of freedom = 12-2 = 10. From the t distribution table (Table 4 in the Statistical Appendix), the critical value of t for a two-tailed test and = 0.05 is 2.228. Hence, the null hypothesis of no relationship between X and Y is rejected.**Figure 18.4 A Nonlinear Relationship for Which r = 0**. . 6 . . 5 4 . . 3 2 . 1 0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3**Regression Analysis**Regressionanalysis is used in the following ways: • Determine whether the independent variables explain a significant variation in the dependent variable: whether a relationship exists. • Determine how much of the variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variables: strength of the relationship. • Determine the structure or form of the relationship: the mathematical equation relating the independent and dependent variables. • Predict the values of the dependent variable. • Control for other independent variables when evaluating the contributions of a specific variable or set of variables. • Regression analysis is concerned with the nature and degree of association between variables and does not imply or assume any causality.**Statistics: Bivariate Regression Analysis**• Bivariate regression model. The basic regression equation is Yi = + Xi+ ei, where Y = dependent or criterion variable, X = independent or predictor variable, = intercept of the line, = slope of the line, and ei is the error term associated with the i th observation. • Coefficient of determination. The strength of association is measured by the coefficient of determination, r 2. It varies between 0 and 1 and signifies the proportion of the total variation in Y that is accounted for by the variation in X. • Estimated or predicted value. The estimated or predicted value of Yi is i= a + b x, where i is the predicted value of Yi, and a and b are estimators of and , respectively.**Statistics: Bivariate Regression Analysis**• Regression coefficient. The estimated parameter b is usually referred to as the non-standardized regression coefficient. • Scattergram. A scatter diagram, or scattergram, is a plot of the values of two variables for all the cases or observations. • Standard error of estimate. This statistic, SEE, is the standard deviation of the actual Y values from the predicted values. • Standard error. The standard deviation of b, SEb, is called the standard error.**Statistics: Bivariate Regression Analysis**• Standardized regression coefficient. Also termed the beta coefficient or beta weight, this is the slope obtained by the regression of Y on X when the data are standardized. • Sum of squared errors. The distances of all the points from the regression line are squared and added together to arrive at the sum of squared errors, which is a measure of total error, . • t statistic. A t statistic with n - 2 degrees of freedom can be used to test the null hypothesis that no linear relationship exists between X and Y, or H0: = 0, where**Conducting Bivariate Regression AnalysisPlot the Scatter**Diagram • A scatter diagram, or scattergram, is a plot of the values of two variables for all the cases or observations. • The most commonly used technique for fitting a straight line to a scattergram is the least-squares procedure. In fitting the line, the least-squares procedure minimizes the sum of squared errors, .**Plot the Scatter Diagram**Formulate the General Model Estimate the Parameters Estimate Standardized Regression Coefficients Test for Significance Determine the Strength and Significance of Association Check Prediction Accuracy Examine the Residuals Refine the Model Conducting Bivariate Regression Analysis Fig. 18.5**Formulate the Bivariate Regression Model**In the bivariate regression model, the general form of a straight line is: Y = X + where Y = dependent or criterion variable X = independent or predictor variable = intercept of the line = slope of the line The regression procedure adds an error term to account for the probabilistic or stochastic nature of the relationship: Yi = Xi + ei where ei is the error term associated with the i th observation. +**Figure 18.6 Bivariate Regression**Figure 18.6 Bivariate Regression Y b0 + b1 X**Estimate the Parameters**are unknown and are estimated from the sample observations using the equation and In most cases, i = a + b xi where i is the estimated or predicted value of Yi, and a and b are estimators of , respectively. and**Estimate the Parameters**The intercept, a, may then be calculated using: a = - b For the data in Table 18.1, the estimation of parameters may be illustrated as follows: 1 2 S XiYi = (10) (6) + (12) (9) + (12) (8) + (4) (3) + (12) (10) + (6) (4) + (8) (5) + (2) (2) + (18) (11) + (9) (9) + (17) (10) + (2) (2) = 917 i = 1 1 2 Xi2 = 102 + 122 + 122 + 42 + 122 + 62 + 82 + 22 + 182 + 92 + 172 + 22 = 1350 S = 1 i**Estimate the Parameters**It may be recalled from earlier calculations of the simple correlation that = 9.333 = 6.583 Given n = 12, b can be calculated as: = 0.5897 a = - b = 6.583 - (0.5897) (9.333) = 1.0793**Estimate the Standardized Regression Coefficient**• Standardization is the process by which the raw data are transformed into new variables that have a mean of 0 and a variance of 1 (Chapter 13). • When the data are standardized, the intercept assumes a value of 0. • The term beta coefficient or beta weight is used to denote the standardized regression coefficient. Byx = Bxy= rxy • There is a simple relationship between the standardized and non-standardized regression coefficients: Byx = byx (Sx /Sy)**Test for Significance**The statistical significance of the linear relationship between X and Y may be tested by examining the hypotheses: A t statistic with n - 2 degrees of freedom can be used, where SEb denotes the standard deviation of b and is called the standard error.**Test for Significance**Using a computer program, the regression of attitude on duration of residence, using the data shown in Table 18.1, yielded the results shown in Table 18.2. The intercept, a, equals 1.0793, and the slope, b, equals 0.5897. Therefore, the estimated equation is: Attitude( ) = 1.0793 + 0.5897 (Duration of Car Ownership) The standard error, or standard deviation of b is estimated as 0.07008, and the value of the t statistic as t = 0.5897/0.0700 = 8.414, with n - 2 = 10 degrees of freedom. From Table 4 in the Statistical Appendix, we see that the critical value of t with 10 degrees of freedom and = 0.05 is 2.228 for a two-tailed test. Since the calculated value of t is larger than the critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected.**Determine Strength and Significance of Association**The total variation, SSy, may be decomposed into the variation accounted for by the regression line, SSreg, and the error or residual variation, SSerror or SSres, as follows: SSy = SSreg + SSres where**Figure 18.7 Decomposition of the Total Variation In**Bivariate Regression { } Residual variation, SS RES Total variation, SSY Y } Explained variation, SS REG Y X**S**S - S S y r e s = S S y Determine the Strength and Significance of Association S S r e g 2 r = S S y To illustrate the calculations of r2, let us consider again the effect of attitude toward the city on the duration of residence. It may be recalled from earlier calculations of the simple correlation coefficient that: = 120.9168**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**The predicted values ( ) can be calculated using the regression equation: Attitude ( ) = 1.0793 + 0.5897 (Duration of Car Ownership) For the first observation in Table 17.1, this value is: ( ) = 1.0793 + 0.5897 x 10 = 6.9763. For each successive observation, the predicted values are, in order, 8.1557, 8.1557, 3.4381, 8.1557, 4.6175, 5.7969, 2.2587, 11.6939, 6.3866, 11.1042, and 2.2587.**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**Therefore, = (6.9763-6.5833)2 + (8.1557-6.5833)2 + (8.1557-6.5833)2 + (3.4381-6.5833)2 + (8.1557-6.5833)2 + (4.6175-6.5833)2 + (5.7969-6.5833)2 + (2.2587-6.5833)2 + (11.6939 -6.5833)2 + (6.3866-6.5833)2 + (11.1042 -6.5833)2 + (2.2587-6.5833)2 =0.1544 + 2.4724 + 2.4724 + 9.8922 + 2.4724 + 3.8643 + 0.6184 + 18.7021 + 26.1182 + 0.0387 + 20.4385 + 18.7021 = 105.9524**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**= (6-6.9763)2 + (9-8.1557)2 + (8-8.1557)2 + (3-3.4381)2 + (10-8.1557)2 + (4-4.6175)2 + (5-5.7969)2 + (2-2.2587)2 + (11-11.6939)2 + (9-6.3866)2 + (10-11.1042)2 + (2-2.2587)2 = 14.9644 It can be seen that SSy = SSreg + Ssres . Furthermore, r 2 = Ssreg /SSy = 105.9524/120.9168 = 0.8762**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**Another equivalent test for examining the significance of the linear relationship between X and Y (significance of b) is the test for the significance of the coefficient of determination. The hypotheses in this case are: H0: R2pop = 0 H1: R2pop > 0**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**The appropriate test statistic is the F statistic, which has an F distribution with 1 and n - 2 degrees of freedom. The F test is a generalized form of the t test (see Chapter 17). If a random variable is t distributed with n degrees of freedom, then t2 is F distributed with 1 and n degrees of freedom. Hence, the F test for testing the significance of the coefficient of determination is equivalent to testing the following hypotheses: or**Determine the Strength and Significance of Association**From Table 18.2, it can be seen that: r2 = 105.9522/(105.9522 + 14.9644) = 0.8762 which is the same as the value calculated earlier. The value of the F statistic is: F = 105.9522/(14.9644/10) = 70.8027 with 1 and 10 degrees of freedom. The calculated F statistic exceeds the critical value of 4.96 determined from Table 5 in the Statistical Appendix. Therefore, the relationship is significant, corroborating the results of the t test.**Check Prediction Accuracy**To estimate the accuracy of predicted values, , it is useful to calculate the standard error of estimate, SEE. n i i i From Table 18.2 = 1.2233**Assumptions**• The error term is normally distributed. For each fixed value of X, the distribution of Y is normal. • The means of all these normal distributions of Y, given X, lie on a straight line with slope b. • The mean of the error term is 0. • The variance of the error term is constant. This variance does not depend on the values assumed by X. • The error terms are uncorrelated. In other words, the observations have been drawn independently.**Multiple Regression**The general form of the multiple regression model is as follows: which is estimated by the following equation: = a + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3+ . . . + bkXk As before, the coefficient a represents the intercept, but the b's are now the partial regression coefficients.**Statistics Associated with Multiple Regression**• Adjusted R2. R2, coefficient of multiple determination, is adjusted for the number of independent variables and the sample size to account for the diminishing returns. After the first few variables, the additional independent variables do not make much contribution. • Coefficient of multiple determination. The strength of association in multiple regression is measured by the square of the multiple correlation coefficient, R2, which is also called the coefficient of multiple determination. • F test. The F test is used to test the null hypothesis that the coefficient of multiple determination in the population, R2pop, is zero. This is equivalent to testing the null hypothesis. The test statistic has an F distribution with k and (n - k - 1) degrees of freedom.**Statistics Associated with Multiple Regression**• Partial F test. The significance of a partial regression coefficient , , of Xi may be tested using an incremental F statistic. The incremental F statistic is based on the increment in the explained sum of squares resulting from the addition of the independent variable Xi to the regression equation after all the other independent variables have been included. • Partial regression coefficient. The partial regression coefficient, b1, denotes the change in the predicted value, Y , per unit change in X1 when the other independent variables, X2 to Xk, are held constant.**Partial Regression Coefficients**= a + b1X1 + b2X2 • First, note that the relative magnitude of the partial regression coefficient of an independent variable is, in general, different from that of its bivariate regression coefficient. • The interpretation of the partial regression coefficient, b1, is that it represents the expected change in Y when X1 is changed by one unit but X2 is held constant or otherwise controlled. Likewise, b2 represents the expected change in Y for a unit change in X2, when X1 is held constant. Thus, calling b1 and b2 partial regression coefficients is appropriate.**Partial Regression Coefficients**• It can also be seen that the combined effects of X1 and X2 on Y are additive. In other words, if X1 and X2 are each changed by one unit, the expected change in Y would be (b1+b2). • Extension to the case of k variables is straightforward. The partial regression coefficient, b1, represents the expected change in Y when X1 is changed by one unit and X2 through Xk are held constant. It can also be interpreted as the bivariate regression coefficient, b, for the regression of Y on the residuals of X1, when the effect of X2 through Xk has been removed from X1.**Partial Regression Coefficients**The relationship of the standardized to the non-standardized coefficients remains the same as before: B1 = b1 (Sx1/Sy) Bk = bk (Sxk /Sy) The estimated regression equation is: ( ) = 0.33732 + 0.48108 X1 + 0.28865 X2 or Attitude = 0.33732 + 0.48108 (Duration) + 0.28865 (Importance)**Examination of Residuals**• A residual is the difference between the observed value of Yi and the value predicted by the regression equation i. • Scattergrams of the residuals, in which the residuals are plotted against the predicted values, i, time, or predictor variables, provide useful insights. • The assumption of a normally distributed error term can be examined by constructing a histogram of the residuals. • The assumption of constant variance of the error term can be examined by plotting the residuals against the predicted values of the dependent variable, i.